Glossary and Acronyms

25th/75th percentile: in a data set ranked by value, these represent the value at which 25%/75% of data points lie below that value.

5G: 5G is the fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide in 2019, and is the planned successor to the 4G networks which provide connectivity to most current mobile phones.

15 Minute City Concept: The 15 minute city concept envisages that within 15 minutes on foot or bike from where they live that people should have the ability to access most of their daily needs.

Adaptability: The potential to modify the spaces of a home by altering the fabric of the building to cater for the different needs of an individual’s or family’s life cycle (e.g. a study space becomes a bedroom; a living room area enlarges by merging with an adjacent room etc.).

Adult shops: Includes uses such as sex shops and head shops.

Allotments: An area of land comprising approximately 100 square meters or less that is let annually to or available for annual letting to and cultivation by one or more than one person who is a member of the local community and lives adjacent or near to the allotment, for the purposes of the production of vegetables, fruit or flowers for non-commercial purposes.

Ancillary Use: A use which is incidental to the principle use of premises. For example, shops often have floorspace not accessible to customers which is used for storing goods for sale.

Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP): The chance of a flood of a given size (or larger) occurring in any one year, usually expressed as a percentage. For example, if a peak flood discharge of 500 m3/s has an AEP of 5%, it means that there is a 5% chance (i.e. a 1 in 20 chance) of a peak discharge of 500 m3/s (or larger) occurring in any one year.

Architectural Conservation Area (ACA): A place, area, group of structures or townscape that is of special architectural, historical, archaeological, technical, social, cultural, or scientific, interest, or that contributes to the appreciation of a Protected Structure, and whose character it is an objective of the Development Plan to preserve.

Architectural Heritage Impact Assessment: A procedure to identify and analyse the potential impacts of proposed development/works on architectural heritage including Protected Structures, to support better their conservation and management.

Biosphere: An area comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems.

Biodiversity: Describes the variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability within and between species and also within and between ecosystems.

Biodiversity Impact Assessment: An assessment of the potential implications of a plan, programme or project for biodiversity undertaken to ensure that it conserves biodiversity, results in sustainable use of biodiversity resources, and is legally compliant. (See also ‘Ecological Impact Assessment’).

Brownfield: Any land which has been subjected to building, engineering or other operations, excluding temporary uses or urban green spaces, generally comprise of redundant industrial lands or docks but may also include former barracks, hospitals or even occasionally, obsolete housing areas.

Building Energy Rating (BER): A requirement of the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. The aim of the directive is to make the energy performance of a building transparent and available to potential purchasers or tenants.

Build to Rent Residential Accommodation: Purpose-built residential accommodation and associated amenities built specifically for long-term rental that is managed and serviced in an institutional manner by an institutional landlord. (see also Section 5.2 of the DHLG&H’s Section 28 Guidelines, ‘’Sustainable Urban Housing: Design Standards for new Apartment’s” (2020).

Business Improvement District Schemes (BIDS): An initiative between Dublin City Council and the business community to promote improvements in the trading environment, image and quality of life of the city for residents, workers and visitors.

Carbon Sequestration: A technique for the long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon, for the mitigation of global warming. Carbon dioxide released by the burning of fossil fuels is usually captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical or physical processes.

CARO: A Climate Action Regional Office (CARO) covering the four Dublin local authorities was established in 2018. CARO’s role includes assisting local authorities in preparing Climate Change Action Plans and developing education and awareness initiatives for the public.

Casual Trading: Refers to on-street trading from pitches designated by the city council.

Category 1 and Category 2 Shopping Streets: Category 1 and Category 2 shopping streets relate to the premier shopping streets within the city centre retail core. In order to maintain and strengthen the retail character of the city centre retail core, which can be adversely affected by dead frontage and lower-order retail uses, the premier shopping streets in the city centre retail core are designated Category 1 and Category 2 shopping streets.

CFRAM study: The Eastern Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM) study has been commissioned in order to meet the requirements of the Floods Directive, as well as to deliver on core components of the 2004 National Flood Policy, in the Eastern District.

City Centre (see also inner city): Relates to the area zoned Z5 on the zoning maps in which the zoning objective is to consolidate and facilitate the development of the central area, and to identify, reinforce, strengthen and protect its civic design character and dignity.

City Region: A region containing a city and satellite towns with strong connections between them and interactions (particularly in the area of commerce) which collectively make the region a strong performer in terms of growth and investment.

Civic Spine: A route through the city centre along which the city’s primary civic, cultural and historic attractions are located. The route is from Parnell Square, through O’Connell Street, College Green to Christchurch Place with a southern extension from College Green to Grafton Street and Stephen’s Green and an eastern extension from College Green to Merrion Square.

City of Dublin Energy Management Agency (Codema): A not-for-profit organisation working to improve the energy efficiency of Dublin’s public buildings.

Click and Collect: A shopping facility whereby a customer can buy or order goods from a store's website and collect them from a local branch.

Climate Change: Long-term variations in global temperature and weather patterns, which occur both naturally and as a result of human activity, primarily through greenhouse gas emissions.

Coherent Urban Structure: This is a term to explain a well-ordered, easily-understood and easily-negotiated character to an urban area. There is a consistent pattern in the character of the various components of the urban area (for example the hierarchy of streets, the design and relationship of buildings to streets, integration of public transport for ease of movement, clear definition of important locations etc.).

Combined Heat and Power: Combined heat and power (CHP) is a system that involves the recovery of waste heat from power generation to form useful energy like useable steam. Combined heat and power is also the production of electricity and thermal energy in a single integrated structure.

Community Garden: A community garden generally has the characteristics of being made by and for members of the local community. When successful, they are also inclusive, so that the young and the old can use the area for play, learning, meeting and socialising, as well as gardening.

Compact City: A city with a less wasteful pattern of development within the urban area. In spatial terms, all land areas would be used efficiently with effective integration of different uses, services and public transportation. The edges and boundaries of the urban area would be well defined.

Compact Growth: Compact growth promotes the efficient use of land through consolidation, active land management and effective densities, in order to minimise sprawl of urban development.

Consolidating the City: The principle of increasing densities, making efficient use of land to infill and develop the city, restricting sprawl and sporadic forms of development and co-ordination of land-use patterns with public transportation.

Consultation Distance: Means a distance or area relating to an establishment, within which there are potentially significant consequences for human health or the environment from a major accident at the establishment, including potentially significant consequences for developments such as residential areas, buildings and areas of public use, recreational areas and major transport routes.

Core Strategy: Core strategy means the strategy contained in a development plan in accordance with Section 10 of the Planning and Development (Amendment) Act, 2010. The core strategy must show that development plan objectives are consistent, as far as practicable, with the National Planning Framework and Regional Spatial and Economic Strategies. The core strategy shows the location, quantum, and phasing of new development.

Critical Mass: The threshold or numeric quantity which is needed to support the viability of a service provision. For example a certain threshold of population might be needed to make commercial sense in opening a business in a location.

Cultural Facilities: Includes artists’ studios/workspaces, artists’ group studios, artists’ live/work units, rehearsal spaces, performance spaces including theatres, dance centres, libraries, galleries, crafts centre, music venues, cinemas and other flexible outdoor spaces which encourage activity at different times of the day and night.

Cultural Quarter: A location or area where many cultural facilities and activities are co-located to give a special character to an area.

Curtilage (Protected Structures): A protected structure includes the land lying within the curtilage of the protected structure along with other structures within that curtilage and the interiors of those structures. The notion of curtilage can be taken to be the parcel of land immediately associated with that structure and which is (or was) in use for the purposes of the structure. It should be noted that the meaning of ‘curtilage’ is influenced by legal considerations other than simply architectural heritage protection.

Data Centre: A data centre is a physical facility composed of networked computers and storage that businesses and other organisations use to organise, process, store and disseminate large amounts of data.

Decile: A method of splitting up a set of ranked data into 10 equally large subsections. The data may be ranked from largest to smallest values, or vice versa.

Dublin City Archaeological Archive (DCAA): The DCAA remit is to record archaeological finds made by archaeologists working in the private sector during the course of development.

Dublin City Industrial Heritage Record (DCIHR): The DCHIR (2006-2009) investigated and mapped 1,219 industrial heritage sites throughout the city and is published on.

Development Management: This is a term to describe the process where the local authority assesses the merits of a proposed development through the planning process (where planning applications are lodged) including the processing, evaluation, decision making and notification components of that process.

Digital Enterprise: An organisation that places an emphasis on the digitisation of business processes and services through sophisticated technology and information systems.

Digital Fibre Connections: Systems of digital fibre connections such as wireless 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G mobile technology.

Digital Infrastructure: The components which support broadband, computing and communications.

District Centre (also referred to as Key Urban Village [KUV]): An area for substantial mixed service facilities, including a range of shops that service a wider residential neighbourhood adjoining it. They are traditionally either the historic urban village centres in the inner and outer suburbs of Dublin city or the location, as the suburbs expanded, of larger shopping centres servicing a wide residential catchment. The term is also used in retail planning policy.

District Heating: District heating is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralised location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.

Dublin Regional Homeless Executive: The shared body for providing statutory homelessness services in the four Dublin local authorities.

Fintech: Computer programs and other technology used to support or enable banking and financial services.

Economic Engines: An area with a strong economic function and performance, which has important consequences and connections in the wider area at many levels (city wide, regional, national, international etc.).

Economic Specialisms: Specialist types of economic and business activity typically where similar businesses co-locate and complement each other in their field of business expertise. An example is the Digital Hub where high tech, innovative media related companies are located in the one area.

Ecological (Eco) Footprint: A measure of human demand and consumption of natural resources owing to lifestyle choices against the earth’s natural ability to renew these resources and the natural environment.

Ecological Impact Assessment: Process of identifying, quantifying and evaluating the potential impacts of defined actions on ecosystems or their components. It can be carried out as part of a formal Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)/Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or to support other forms of environmental assessment or appraisal. (See also ‘Biodiversity Impact Assessment’).

E Commerce: The trading of products or services using computer networks. A popular form is online shopping which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.

Electric Vehicles: A battery-only electric vehicle or all-electric vehicle derives all its power from its battery packs and thus has no internal combustion engine, fuel cell, or fuel tank. A plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), is a hybrid electric vehicle which utilises rechargeable batteries, or another energy storage device, that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source. A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE), and of an all-electric vehicle, having a plug to connect to the electrical grid.

Embodied Carbon: Embodied carbon refers to the emissions associated with all the activities of procuring, mining, harvesting raw materials, transforming these materials into construction products, transporting them to site and incorporating them into a building, and subsequently maintaining, replacing and removing and disposing at the end of their life.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):

An EIA is a process of assessment of the effects of a project or development proposal on the environment. In the planning area, it is undertaken by a planning authority or An Bord Pleanála during the consideration of applications for planning permission, taking account of an Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIAR). The projects which require EIA are listed in Annex I and Annex II of the EIA Directive, as amended.

Environmental Impact Assessment Report: An Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIAR) is a report or statement of the effects, if any, which the proposed project, if carried out, would have on the environment. It is prepared by the developer to inform the EIA process.

Environmental Traffic Cells: Environmental Traffic Cells use traffic management measures as a means of preventing non-essential traffic using unsuitable residential roads, to create a safer and more attractive environment within cell areas. Wherever possible, traffic cells are self-contained and cover distinctive local neighbourhoods.

EU Directive: A legal act of the European Union, which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.

EU Landfill Directive: A European Community Directive (1999/31/EC) with the overall aim to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular, the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from the landfilling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill.

Floor Plates: The physical shape and space of a building’s footprint and its subsequent internal floorspace. Large floor plates infer larger buildings in width and depth. Certain types of land-use such as corporate office headquarters, supermarkets etc. could be described as requiring large floor plates.

Flood Risk Assessment: A study to assess the risk of flooding under both present and future circumstances, such as changes in climate, land-use, development or flood risk management.

Flood Risk Management: Flood Risk Management combines the function of mitigating and monitoring flood risks and may include pre-flood, flood-event or post flood activities.

Foreign Direct Investment: An investment made by a company or entity based in one country, into a company or entity based in another country.

Glare: Excessive brightness that causes visual discomfort.

Goods Convenience: Examples of such goods are food, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, tobacco and non-durable household goods.

Goods Comparison: Examples of such goods are clothing and footwear, furniture, furnishings and household equipment (excluding non-durable foods), medical and pharmaceutical products, therapeutic appliances and equipment, educational and recreation equipment and accessories, books, newspapers and magazines, goods for personal care and goods not elsewhere classified.

Greenway: A Greenway is a recreational or pedestrian corridor for non-motorised journeys, developed in an integrated manner which enhances both the environment and quality of life of the surrounding area. These routes should meet satisfactory standards of width, gradient and surface condition to ensure that they are both user-friendly and low-risk for users of all abilities. Greenways are for everyone.

Green Corridor: Linear green connection along road and rail routes, rivers and canals, including cycling routes and rights of way. These interconnect larger open spaces, habitats, and areas of natural landscape.

Green Infrastructure: This term is used in two ways. It can describe a network of connected, high quality, multifunctional open spaces, corridors, and the links in between, that provide environmental services and multiple benefits for people and wildlife. It is also used to describe a broad range of design measures, techniques and materials that have a sustainable character and have a beneficial environmental impact such as solar panels, wind turbines etc.

Green Roof: A roof with living vegetation growing in a substrate or growing medium. Also referred to as eco-roofs, vegetated roofs, or living roofs.

Habitable Room: Habitable rooms provide the ‘living accommodation’ of the dwelling. They include living room, dining room, study, home office, conservatory, bedroom etc. They exclude the bathroom, WC, utility room, store room and circulation space. A kitchen is not a habitable room unless it provides space for dining.

Heritage: Under the Heritage Act 1995, heritage is defined in a comprehensive manner as including monuments, archaeological objects, heritage objects such as art and industrial works, documents and genealogical records, architectural heritage, flora, fauna, wildlife habitats, landscapes, seascapes, wrecks, geology, heritage parks and gardens and inland waterways.

Homezones: Homezones are residential streets in which the road space is shared between drivers and other road users with the wider needs and safety of residents, including people who walk and cycle, prioritised over car drivers.

Housing Need and Demand Assessment (HNDA): An assessment of existing and forecast housing need in a local authority as required by the National Planning Framework.

Housing Supply Target: A calculation of housing need for a local authority for a six-year development plan period, following a methodology set out in Section 28 Guidelines in December 2020.

Housing Strategy: A document, required under planning and development acts, which sets out the strategy of the local authority in the provision of housing for the existing and future population of the administrative area, the availability of lands zoned for housing, the needs for social, affordable and other specialist categories such as elderly housing, to ensure that a reasonable mix of housing type is provided to meet identified needs, and to ensure a balanced distribution and integration of different house types across the city.

Housing Typologies: Different types of housing design and character. Examples would be the differences in bedroom quantity per apartment, difference between apartments, duplexes, town houses, semi-detached houses etc.

Hydromorphology: A consideration of the physical character and water content of water bodies.

Indicators: A measurable and quantitative statistic which, when grouped over a time period, shows a trend. Used either singularly or in conjunction with another term (e.g. City Performance Indicators).

Industrial Heritage: The physical remains of the history of technology and industry, such as manufacturing and mining sites, as well as power and transportation infrastructure.

Industrial Process: Means any process which is carried on in the course of trade or business other than agriculture and which is for or incidental to the making of any article or part of an article (including a vehicle, aircraft, ship or vessel, or a film, video or sound recording), or the altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, cleaning, washing, packing, canning, adapting for sale, breaking up or demolition of any article, including the getting, dressing, or treatment of minerals.

Inner city (see also city centre): The inner city is bounded on the northside by the North Circular Road, Phibsborough Road, the Royal Canal, North Strand Road and East Wall Road, and on the southside by the South Circular Road, Suir Road, the Grand Canal from Dolphin Road to Grand Canal Street Upper, Bath Avenue, Londonbridge Road, Church Avenue and Beach Road.

Inner suburbs (see also outer city): Those areas beyond the inner city (see definition above) which comprise the 19th century built-up areas, including Drumcondra, north Phibsborough, Rathmines and Ballsbridge.

Internet of Things: The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—a.k.a. "things"—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the Internet.

Integrated Surface Water Management Strategy: A scheme that incorporates new and existing drainage features to control and treat surface water runoff in a sustainable way, ensuring there is no unacceptable residual risk of flooding, ensuring no increased flood risk up or downstream and the provision of adequate levels of treatment of the surface water as it is proposed to discharge directly to existing watercourses integrating nature based water retention measures where appropriate.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

Key Urban Villages: See also district centres. Localised hubs of commercial, retail, employment and community facilities with a distinctive local identity – generally delivered by the Z4 (Mixed Services) zoning.

Key Worker: Is a public sector employee who is considered to provide an essential service in an urban environment such as a nurse or firefighter.

Kickstart Initiative: A plan-led approach for the incremental development of strategic residentially zoned lands and detailed in the ‘Construction 2020’ document.

Knowledge Economy: The use of knowledge to produce economic benefits for society based primarily on intellectual skills, creativity, research and development, and technology.

Kyoto Protocol: An international environmental treaty which legally binds countries that signed into the treaty to reduce their production of greenhouse gases by defined targets over a specified time period. The treaty was signed in 1997 in the city of Kyoto, Japan and came into effect in 2005. Targets are set to achieve reductions in emissions by set percentages below 1990 levels.

Land Development Agency (LDA): LDA is a commercial, State-sponsored body that has been created to coordinate land within State control for more optimal uses where appropriate, with a focus on the provision of housing.

Legibility: The ease of understanding and negotiating routes around the urban area and how the built environment impacts on it. Contributors to the legibility of the urban area include a clear order in the street network, good lines of vision and the framing of views, instances of landmarks etc.

Legible Dublin Study: A study by Dublin City Council to identify ways of improving how people move as pedestrians throughout the city centre and orientate themselves to find key locations such as employment areas, public transport facilities, retail streets, cultural institutions etc. It examined the different character areas within the city and identified potential measures to improve movement and wayfinding throughout the city centre.

Life-cycle Approach: This term, as used in Towards 2016 – Social Partnership Agreement, and the National Action Plan For Social Inclusion 2007–2016, refers to the tackling of problems people face at different stages of their lives. The lifecycle stages are: children, people of working age, older people, people with disabilities.

Lifetime Homes: A type of housing which is accessible and convenient for a large segment of the population from young children to frail older people and those with temporary or permanent physical or sensory impairments.

Living City Initiative (LCI): The Living City Initiative is a scheme of property tax incentives related to residential and commercial refurbishment which applies in certain 'special regeneration areas' in the centres of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford and Kilkenny.

Local Area Plan (LAP): Local Area Plans are statutory plans covering specifically defined local areas. They must be adhered to in guiding development in the areas to which they refer.

Local Community Development Committee (LCDC): Committee responsible for co-ordination, governance, planning and oversight of local development spend.

Local Economic and Community Plan (LECP): A plan setting out the objectives and actions needed to promote and support the economic and community development of the city.

Local Environmental Improvement Plan (LEIP): A plan that provides a structured approach to the physical enhancement of a small defined area.

Masterplans: A framework to provide area-specific and more detailed design guidance for large-scale mixed-use development, for example, to indicate an overall structure for a new neighbourhood.

Mean: The average or central value of a set of numbers.

Median: In a data set ranked by value, the value separating the upper half from the lower half of the data set (the midpoint or middle value).

Metropolitan Area: A term used in regional planning guidelines to refer to the existing built up area of Dublin and its immediate environs (including parts of each of the four Dublin local authorities).

Metropolitan Core: The very centre of the built-up urban area as distinct from the suburban character areas within the built up area. The inner city of Dublin is traditionally associated as the metropolitan core in the regional context.

Mews: Historically comprising stabling with living accommodation above. Usually built at the rear of larger Georgian and early Victorian terraces (often Protected Structures).

Micro Renewable Energy: The generation of energy from zero or low carbon source technologies.

Mitigation: An action that helps to lessen the impacts of a process or development on the receiving environment. It is used most often in association with measures that would seek to reduce negative impacts of a process or development.

Mobility Management Plan: Specific measures which are put in place by employer(s) at proposed developments to encourage and support sustainable travel choices for staff, visitors and customers.

Modal shift: The process where people change their travel behaviour (usually between home and work) from a particular type of transport (private car for example) to another more sustainable form of travel (public transport for example).

MUGA: An outdoor multi-use games area, often with synthetic surfaces which accommodates a number of different sports.

National Cultural Institutions: These are the National Archives, National Concert Hall, the Abbey Theatre, National Museum of Ireland, National Library of Ireland, National Gallery of Ireland, Chester Beatty Library, Irish Museum of Modern Art and the Crawford Gallery.

National Asset Management Agency (NAMA): The agency charged with acquiring property development loans and securing the best return for the State on them.

National Inventory of Architectural Heritage: The NIAH is a statutory, state initiative under the administration of the Department of Housing, Local Government and Heritage. The purpose of the NIAH is to identify, record, and evaluate the post-1700 architectural heritage of Ireland, uniformly and consistently as an aid in the protection and conservation of the built heritage. NIAH surveys provide the basis for the recommendations of the Minister for Housing, Local Government and Heritage to planning authorities for the inclusion of particular structures in their Record of Protected Structures (RPS).

Natura Impact Statement (NIS): A statement, for the purposes of Article 4 of the Habitats Directive, of the implications of a proposed development, on its own or in combination with other plans or projects, for one or more than one European site, in view of the conservation objectives of the site or sites. This is prepared by the applicant.

Natura Impact Report (NIR): A statement for the purposes of Article 6 of the Habitats Directive, of the implications of a land use plan, on its own or in combination with other plans or projects, for one or more than one European Site, in view of the conservation objectives of the site or sites. This is prepared by the competent authority.

Neighbourhood: A recognised geographic area typically characterised by residential development and social community and civic infrastructure such as schools and healthcare facilities. Many neighbourhoods have a focal point such as an urban village that have a range of local shops and services serving the immediate area.

Neighbourhood Centres: Important locations in the city where a smaller range of mixed services and facilities are co-located to benefit a local residential catchment. They usually consist of a row of commercial units providing local shops, services like a post office, the local pub and other professional and commercial services.

Objectives: See ‘Policies and Objectives’.

Outer City (see also Inner suburbs): Those areas generally between the 19th century urban areas/villages and the city boundary.

Over-arching Sustainable Framework: An overall, citywide guiding structure to co-ordinate and provide effective guidance across all policies and decisions in the achievement of a sustainable city.

Passive Surveillance: Limiting the opportunity for crime by taking steps to increase the perception that people can be seen by through urban design. Specifically, the placement of physical features, activities and people in such a way as to maximise visibility and foster positive social interaction.

Placemaking: Is a multi-faceted approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. Placemaking capitalises on a local community's assets, inspiration, and potential, with the intention of creating public spaces that promote people's health, happiness, and well-being.

Planning and Development Act 2000: The main legislative basis of the Irish planning system, including subsequent amendments.

Policies and Objectives: Policies set out the general direction to be adopted and pursued by the City Council to achieve the proper planning and sustainable development of its area. Objectives, on the other hand, are more specific and refer to actual programmes which will go towards achieving a policy or strategy. Objectives should generally be achievable within the lifetime of the development plan.

Post-carbon Economy: An economy where renewable energy sources will ultimately replace fossil fuels as the primary energy source in economic activities. Improved technology, greater efficiency, lower costs and use of renewable energy sources will help in the reduction of carbon fuel usage to achieve a post carbon economy.

Public Participation Network (PPN): The PPN is the main link through which the local authority connects with the community, voluntary and environmental sectors.

Public Art: A wide range of artistic expressions including the commissioning of permanent work as well as temporary work such as performance art forms (music, drama, dance) and other art forms such as film, literature, etc.

Public Realm: Areas accessible to the public in their movement through an urban place. It is most often used when commenting on the quality of footpaths, civic spaces such as parks and road space and its associated components, including the condition of surface treatments, quality of street furniture, lighting and planting.

Protected Structure: A ‘protected structure’ is defined as any structure or specified part of a structure, which is included in the Record of Protected Structures (RPS) on merit of its special architectural, historical, archaeological, artistic, cultural, scientific, social or technical interest. There are no categories or grades of protected structures. Protection extends to the exterior and interior of the structure, and its fixtures and features. Structures located within the curtilage of a protected structure are also protected along with their respective interiors.

Quiet Areas: An area where there is a daytime noise limit of 55 decibels and 45 decibels at night, in line with the European Union Noise Directive.

Retail Catchment Area: The area surrounding the location of a retail premises from where most of the custom for the premises is generated.

Retail Core: The central area for higher order retail activity in the city. The retail core of Dublin would include important locations such as Henry Street and Grafton Street and the other Category 2 designated shopping streets.

Retail Hierarchy: The different levels or rank of importance of retail locations in either national, regional or city terms. Higher ranking centres have a far greater role in providing services for a very wide or specialist catchment (e.g. high street fashion stores in the city centre attract people nationwide and across the city) and lower ranking centres have a more localised and neighbourhood role (corner shops for the convenience of local residents). Understanding the hierarchy can help to guide proper policies that protect the role and quality of varying different centres.

Retail: Higher Order: Goods are classed on a relative scale from lower-order to higher-order goods. Lower-order goods are those goods which consumers need frequently and, therefore, are willing to travel only short distances to get them. Higher-order goods are needed less frequently and so consumers are willing to travel further for them. These longer trips are undertaken not only for purchasing purposes but other activities as well.

Retail Warehouse: A large single-level store specialising in the sale of bulky household goods, such as carpets, furniture and electrical goods, bulky DIY items, vehicles, caravans, boats, building materials and gardening products.

Resilience: The ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for self- organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change.

Riparian Zone: This is the area between land and a river or stream and is significant in ecological terms. May also be known as riverine.

River Basin Management Plan: As required by the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), these plans will establish a strategic plan for the long-term management of the River Basin District.

River Restoration: River restoration refers to a large variety of ecological, physical, spatial and management measures and practices. These are aimed at restoring the natural state and functioning of the river system in support of biodiversity, recreation, flood management and landscape development.

Shop: Class 1: Means a structure used for any or all of the following purposes, where the sale, display or service is principally to visiting members of the public:

  1. For the retail sale of goods.
  2. As a post office.
  3. For the sale of tickets or as a travel agency.
  4. For the sale of sandwiches or other food or of wine for consumption off the premises, where the sale of such food or wine is subsidiary to the main retail use, and ‘wine’ is defined as any intoxicating liquor which may be sold under a wine retailer’s off-licence (within the meaning of the Finance (1909–1910) Act, 1910), 10 Edw. 7. & 1 Geo. 5, c.8.
  5. For hairdressing.
  6. For the display of goods for sale.
  7. For the hiring out of domestic or personal goods or articles.
  8. As a launderette or dry cleaners.
  9. For the reception of goods to be washed, cleaned or repaired.

It does not include any use associated with the provision of funeral services or as a funeral home, or as a hotel, a restaurant or a public house, or for the sale of hot food for consumption off the premises, except under paragraph (d) above, or any use to which class 2 or 3 of Part 4 of Schedule 2 of the Planning and Development Regulations, 2001 (as amended) applies.

Salmonid: Any of various fishes of the family salmonidae, which includes the salmon, trout, grayling, and whitefish.

Section 28 Guidelines: Guidelines for local authorities on planning policy issued by the Minister for Housing under Section 28 of the Planning and Development Act 2000 (as amended), which local authorities must have regard to in carrying out their planning functions.

Sequential Test: A means of checking that the most suitable and best available location has been chosen for a new retail operation. In order to protect the role, performance and a strong character to established retail locations, it is important that new retail investment is guided to locate close to existing locations for shared access, shared custom base and to consolidate the existing town/district or neighbourhood centre.

Shared Accommodation/Co-living Developments: Professionally managed rental accommodation, where individual rooms are rented within a commercial development that includes access to shared or communal facilities and amenities. (See also Section 5.19 of the DHLGH Section 28 guidelines, ‘’Sustainable Urban Housing: Design Standards for New Apartment’s” (2020)

Specific Planning Policy Requirement (SPPR): A policy set out in Section 28 guidelines which local authorities also must have regard to in carrying out their planning functions.

Sky Glow: Brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas.

Smart Economy: A smart economy refers to the combination of innovative and creative enterprise (research and development companies, advanced technologies, etc.) that promotes a high-quality environment and first class sustainable infrastructure (renewable energies and materials), encourages green technologies and innovations, and often includes collaboration with third level educational centres.

Social Enterprise: Social enterprises are businesses whose core objective is to achieve a social, societal, or environmental impact. They frequently work to support disadvantaged groups such as the long-term unemployed, people with disabilities, travellers, etc., or to address issues such as food poverty, social housing, or environmental matters. Like other businesses, social enterprises pursue their objectives by trading in goods and services on an ongoing basis. However, any surpluses generated by social enterprises are re-invested into achieving social objectives, rather than maximising profit for their owners.

Social Infrastructure: Social infrastructure includes all community infrastructure. The physical infrastructure necessary for successful communities, i.e. community infrastructure such as schools, libraries, community centres, cultural spaces, health centres, facilities for the elderly and persons with disabilities, childcare facilities, parks, and other facilities and spaces for play and recreational activity.

Spatial Clusters of Economic Specialisms: A spread of different centres throughout the urban area where particular types of economic activity are concentrated and co-located for synergies.

Spatial Hubs: A central location and convergence point, typically along key public transport routes, for the surrounding residential area which has the capacity to absorb and provide for an enhanced threshold of mixed uses and services. It is used when talking about clusters or key urban centres.

Spatial Framework: An overarching plan to co-ordinate and promote orderly forms for the location of development, to ensure an integrated approach in the pattern of development (for example integrating landuse and public transportation) and ensures an efficient use of land.

Special Areas of Planning Control: A special scheme that accompanies areas designated as architectural conservation areas (ACAs). It aims to complement the ACA primarily by controlling certain uses which would undermine the quality and vitality of the area.

Specification: A written description of work to be undertaken, including the materials to be used, the method of work and the finishing technique.

Stakeholder: Denoting a type of organisation or system in which all the members or participants are seen as having an interest in its success.

Strategic Special Regeneration Area: Relates to the geographic areas to which the Living City Initiative applies – see

Student Accommodation: A building, or part thereof, used or to be used to accommodate students whether or not provided by a relevant provider (within the meaning of Qualifications and Quality Assurance (Education and Training) Act 2012), and that is not for use (i) as permanent residential accommodation, or (ii) subject to (b), as a hotel, hostel, apart-hotel or similar type accommodation, and (b) includes residential accommodation that is used as tourist or visitor accommodation but only if it is so used outside of academic term times (see also Planning and Development (Housing) and Residential Tenancies Act 2016).

Strategic Development Zone (SDZ): A Strategic Development Zone is an area of land that is proposed to contain developments of economic or social importance to the State.

Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA): An EU-based statutory process of assessment to examine the likely significant environmental effects of a plan or programme, prior to its adoption. It identifies consequences of actions prior to implementation and requires appropriate mitigation measures to remove identified impacts as part of the plan or programme.

Strategic Green Routes: Important routes and corridors connecting different areas where a high environmental quality and sustainable mode of travel is promoted. Linear areas of important natural habitat and natural amenity complimented by walking and cycling routes are a good example of what is referenced by this term.

Stone Sett: A broadly rectangular quarried stone used for paving purposes.

Sustainable Development: The definition of sustainable development comes from the Brundtland Commission (1983) which states it is development ‘that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’.

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS): Sustainable Drainage Systems are a way of managing rainfall that minimises the negative impacts on the quantity and quality of runoff whilst maximising the benefits of amenity and biodiversity for people and the environment. This form of drainage aims to control run-off as close to its source as possible, using a sequence of management practices and control structures designed to drain surface water in a more sustainable fashion than some conventional techniques.

Sustainable Neighbourhoods: A neighbourhood where a broad range of facilities and services are integrated with the residential areas. The distances people travel for different activities as part of their quality of life (access to work, home, community facilities, cultural and leisure, retail facilities) are short and conducive to the use of public transport, walking, cycling etc. The needs of the community are provided in short distances.

Synergies: Strong connections between different locations, a complementary character in terms of activities and types of uses and correspondingly strong interactions, and where the sum is greater than the mere addition of the parts.

Taking in Charge: The taking over of the running/maintenance/ownership by a local authority of lands that were developed privately but which have public access and a wider public benefit in their provision. The local authority thereafter looks after these areas for the public. Examples are residential estate roads and public parks.

Third Places: The third place is the social surroundings separate from the two usual social environments of home ("first place") and the workplace ("second place"). Examples of third places include churches, cafes, clubs, public libraries, bookstores or parks.

Traffic Impact Assessment: A detailed assessment of the nature and extent of the impact of any substantial development on the immediate and surrounding road network and, if deemed necessary, on the wider transportation system.

Transport Assessment: Transport assessments, while incorporating traffic impact assessments, are wider in scope. They set the development in the context of the existing and proposed public transport network with the intention of optimising the benefits of public transport infrastructure. They also seek to promote walking and cycling and may as a result, identify where improvements could be made in the pedestrian and cycling networks.

Travel Plans: A travel plan consists of a package of measures, initiatives and incentives aimed at encouraging a target group of people to shift from travelling individually by private car to walking, cycling, public transport and car-sharing.

Universal Design: The design and composition of indoor and outdoor physical environments so that they can be accessed and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size or disability.

Urban Design Principles: Set of guiding design rules to be incorporated in the design process for plans or developments. They can help to ensure that provision is made for important elements which promote high quality design and positive integration of the proposal with the surrounding area. Examples would include adherence to building lines, provision of a park, provision of a landmark feature at an important focal point, provision of new streets to link adjoining areas etc.

Urban Design Statement: A supporting document required for new development proposals that set out the rationale and justification as to how the best design solution for the site has been arrived at.

Urban Form: A collective reference for the various separate important elements that create an urban area. These elements include at a broad level the relationship between streets, blocks, individual buildings, open space etc. Understanding the urban form of a particular area can identify strengths and weaknesses of the existing area’s character and can inform positive ideas for new proposals to respect or restore the urban form.

Urban Fabric: This term is related to the expression urban form but is used most often when explaining more subtle features of the area’s character like the proportion of buildings, the width of buildings along a street, architectural details, etc. Collectively, such details define the particular character of an urban area.

Urban Grain: A measure of the pattern of building plots, building widths and streets in urban areas. Older parts of the city tend to have a fine grain with many streets/lanes and smaller plots.

Urban Sprawl: Uncoordinated or haphazard expansion of urban type development into undeveloped and rural areas that adjoin the boundary of a town or city. Urban sprawl is an unsustainable form of development.

Urban village: An urban village typically comprises neighbourhood centres or clusters of shops and services that support and serves the daily needs of the surrounding residential catchment.

Vitality and Viability of Centres: Vitality relates to the quality of the built environment, extent of activity and positive impressions generated by a centre. Viability relates to the commercial strength, access to markets and customers, and the health of businesses in centres. The term is used in retail policies to promote good quality and successful commercial locations.

Village Improvement Plans (VIP): This is a non-statutory plan or strategy for an urban area centred on an urban village, prepared through consultation with the local community subject to available resources.

Walkability: The extent to which a place is attractive for people to walk to, from, and within. A mix of uses, well-connected streets, good architecture, and a safe, quality public domain are all conducive to ‘walkability’.

Water Framework Directive: A European Community Directive (2000/60/EC) designed to integrate the way we manage water bodies across Europe. It requires all inland and coastal waters to reach ‘good status’ or ‘good ecological potential’ in the case of heavily modified water bodies by 2027.